#OnThisDay, President Ulysses S. Grant, signed the Civil Rights Act (CRA) of 1875. The CRA was enacted during the Reconstruction era in response to civil rights violations against African Americans. The act provided for equal treatment in public accommodations and transportation. It also outlawing race-based discrimination in jury service.
Over the ensuing years, African Americans began suing businesses that denied them access to segregated facilities. On Oct 15, 1883, the Supreme Court of the US (SCOTUS) heard a group of five cases (known as the Civil Rights Cases), and in an 8-1 decision, struck down the CRA of 1875 as unconstitutional.
-- 1866 Johnson vetos CRA of 1866, but veto is overridden by Congress (define citizenship and guaranteed citizens equal protection)
-- 1875 Grant signs CRA of 1875 (guaranteed African Americans equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation, and prohibited their exclusion from jury service)
-- 1883 SCOTUS rules 7-1 that CRA of 1875 is unconstitutional
-- 1957 Eisenhower signs CRA of 1957 (forms the Civil Rights Commission)
-- 1960 Eisenhower signs CRA of 1960 (guaranteed qualified voters the right to register to vote
-- 1964 Johnson signs CRA of 1964 (prohibited discrimination in public accommodations and employment)
-- 1968 Johnson signs CRA of 1968 (guaranteed equal housing opportunities)
-- 1991 Bush signs the CRA of 1991 (expanded the rights of women and disabled persons)
-- US House of Rep: https://history.house.gov/Historical-Highlights/1851-1900/The-Civil-Rights-Act-of-1875
-- Library of Congress: https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/civil-rights-act/legal-events-timeline.html
-- Grant's Memoirs: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/4367/4367-h/4367-h.htm